Dosage calculations & extract equivalency in herbal medicine

Compound Tincture of RhubarbOver a number of years of teaching, one of the common issues I’ve noticed is that students often find calculating dosage equivalents rather challenging. It is important to be able to convert between liquid extract quantities and dry herb amounts, and vice versa. So I thought this would be a good place to discuss the issues and provide some techniques to help.

Extraction vs Dry Herb

For hundreds of years extracts have been used in the administration of herbal medicines. In the earliest and simplest forms this usually involved infusions and decoctions, however as tools and methods have developed over the centuries, far more complicated and sophisticated methods are available and commonly used today.

However for lack of a better measure, the most commonly used dosage standard is weight of dry herb material. This is used in most historical and modern texts, where you will see dosage statements such as …

2-4g of dry root or equivalent, three times daily.

The interesting and most important phrase in here is “or equivalent”.


Equivalency implies that another preparation form or extract of a herb is suitable, provided it is deemed to be “equivalent” to this dosage of dry plant material.

By definition an extract removes something and leaves behind something else. Extraction thus changes the chemical profile when compared to the dry herb itself. Many factors can determine the chemistry of the final extract including:

  • solvent (menstruum) – eg. polar or non-polar, or combinations of different solvents
  • duration of maceration of dry material
  • physical size of dry material being macerated
  • method used to extract (eg. percolation, or simple maceration only)
  • concentration steps employed (eg. none, heat, low pressure)
  • and of course the quality of the raw material being extracted.

Therefore in the truest sense an extract can never be completely “equivalent” to the dry plant material, regardless of how it is produced. Nevertheless this concept of equivalency is still used widely (indeed it is included as a concept in the Australian Therapeutics Goods Regulations) due largely to the common desire to employ mostly Galenical extracts.

Galenical Extracts & Selective Extracts

A general principle of herbal medicine is that the activity of the medicine is due to a combination of active chemicals in the plant or the extract. Thus in most cases it is desirable to create an extract which most closely represents the chemical complexity of the dry plant material. Such extracts are often termed “Galenical extracts”, and more recently “full-spectrum extracts”.

However extracts which are not really comparable to the chemistry of dry herb are sometimes used in herbal medicine, in particular in tableting. These extracts are often called “Selective extracts” as their production methods have selectively removed one or more chemicals to a high degree, at the expense of other chemicals. Sometimes so-called “standardised extracts” are in reality selective extracts, as the Australian regulatory definition for standardisation is somewhat loose.

The merits of Galenical and Selective extracts are debated at length in herbal medicine, and are beyond the scope of this document. Suffice to say that general or blanket statements on this issue are usually flawed, and choice of extract can be very dependant upon the desired outcome of the medicine. For example, a selective standardised extract of Silybum marianum has been demonstrated to have excellent efficacy in severe hepatic damage, and also very good safety, making it a useful clinical choice. However in many other cases selective extracts may offer no additional – or even reduced – therapeutic benefit.

Extraction Strength (Drug Extract Ratio)

The strength of herbal extracts are generally expressed as a ratio of dry plant material to final extract quantity, also known as the drug extract ratio (DER). It is expressed in the following format:

X : Y

X = weight of dry plant material

Y = weight or volume of extract (depending upon whether extract is a solid/dry extract, or a liquid extract)

The concept here is that the essential activity of the dry plant material (X) is found in the quantity of extract (Y). Or in other words, Y quantity of the extract is equivalent to X quantity of the dry plant.

Remember that ratios are fractions – ie. a 1:2 is the same as ½, a 1:3 is the same as 1/3 and a concentrated 4:1 is equivalent to 4.

DER Dry Herb Weight Extract Weight or Volume Extract Description
1:1 1kg 1L liquid extract (also by convention 1:1’s are known as a fluid extracts)
1:2 1kg 2L liquid extract
1:3 1kg 3L liquid extract
1:5 1kg 5L liquid extract; 1:5’s and below are often termed tinctures, although this is technically more determined by method of extraction than actual DER (i.e. technically tinctures are produced only through maceration)
1:10 1kg 10L liquid extract; tincture
2:1 2kg 1L concentrated liquid extract
4:1 4kg 1kg semi-solid extract – hence the change to using weight as a measurement of extract quantity rather than volume
8:1 8kg 1kg solid or semi-solid extract (depending upon consistency)
25:1 25kg 1kg solid extract
8-9:1 8-9kg 1kg solid or semi-solid extract; when extracts from different batches are combined to obtain specific outcomes (eg. standardisation or quantification of specific phytochemicals in the final product), sometimes a range is used as the extract ratio; this can make dosage calculations based on dry herb quantities difficult


Extract Equivalency & Dosage Calculations

With multiple dosage forms now being common in herbal medicine, it is essential that clinicians can convert between extract and dry herb equivalency, and vice-versa. This process is very simple, and it is essential that all herbal students and clinicians can do these conversions quickly and accurately.

For instance, need to be able to interconvert between …

  • an Echinacea tablet stated to contain 200mg of a 4:1 extract, with a dose of 1 tablet three times daily
  • an Echinacea purpurea radix liquid extract stated to be a 1:2
  • a textbook recommended dose for Echinacea purpurea radix of 1-2g three times daily

So let’s look first at some rules to help you make these conversions.

1) Converting from dry herb to extract (DIVIDE)

An example of this would be:

“You have a 1:3 extract and need to give 1.5g of dry herb equivalent. What dose of the 1:3 extract should you use?”

X (dry herb quantity) = 1.5g
Y (extract quantity) = unknown
Extract ratio: 1:3 (or 1/3)

Rule: Divide the dry weight by the extract ratio

1.5g divided by 1/3 = 4.5mL

Therefore the answer is 4.5mL

2) Converting from extract to dry herb (MULTIPLY)

An example of this would be:

“You have 2mL of 1:3 extract, what is the equivalent quantity of dry herb?”

X (dry herb quantity) = unknown
Y (extract quantity) = 2mL
Extract ratio: 1:3 (or 1/3)

Rule: Multiply the extract quantity by the extract ratio

2mL multiplied by 1/3 = 0.66g

Therefore the answer is 0.66g

3) Don’t Get Your Units Messed Up!

It is essential that you keep your units correct throughout your calculations. When you look at the table given on page 2, you see that a 1:2 extract is said to be 1kg : 2L. This is the same as:

1000g : 2000mL (because there are 1000g in 1kg and 1000mL in 1L)
1g : 2mL
1000mg : 2mL
500mg : 1mL

Some Examples

Here are some examples of applying the methods discussed above.

1) What is the dry herb equivalent of 2mL of a 1:2 extract?

This is an “extract to dry herb” question, so we multiply by the extraction ratio.

2mL multiplied by 1/2 = 1g

Therefore the answer is 1g

2) What is the 1:5 liquid equivalent of 3g of dry herb?

This is a “dry herb to extract” question, so we divide by the extraction ratio.

3g divided by 1/5 = 15mL

Therefore the answer is 15mL

3) What is the dry herb equivalent of 150mg of an 8:1 extract?

This is an “extract to dry herb” question, so we multiply by the extraction ratio. But remember that we need to keep our units the same!

150mg multiplied by 8/1 = 1200mg

Therefore the answer is 1200mg (or 1.2g)


  1. Reply


    September 20, 2014

    Ian, you've addressed this issue with real finesse. Of course, there are several threads to the more complete topic of crude herb to liquid dosage conversion that you did not address in your article (e.g. fresh versus dry and drop dosage calculations). But, what is addressed, is framed splendidly.

    As you point out, all extraction is selective. Even if we extract all soluble constituents, at the very least we are leaving behind the spent marc, which may in itself provide benefit, if we were to consume the plant as part of a plant-based diet. For what it's worth...the way I see it, there are 3 common motives behind employing purposefully selective extraction. First, in commerce, selective extraction may be driven by some effort to increase profitability, by maximizing the yield of a compound being characterized for so-called 'standardization'. As a manufacturer, if I use a solvent composition and extraction methodology that yields an increase of a plant's biomarker compound(s) by 10%, then I can use 10% less of that extract in my finished product...and still meet the label claim for the biomarker(s). Secondly, it may actually be advantageous when using some of the so-called 'toxic botanicals' - that have a narrower TI - to know precisely how much of a marker compound is in each dose. Finally, selective extraction can be employed to produce an extract tailored for a specific therapeutic outcome. Taking Podophyllum for example - according to the Eclectics, if extracted with ethanol, you yield the plant's resins, which are highly cathartic. Conversely, extract Podophyllum with hot water and you yield more of the lectins, which are considered to be highly alterative. So, are you extracting Podophyllum to provide a laxative or a 'blood purifying' effect? The answer will determine what you selectively extract.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      September 21, 2014

      Hi Shayne!

      Thanks for your comments, and I thoroughly agree with what you've said about selective extraction. Everything from the solvents used, duration of maceration/percolation, temperature of the maceration, all can play a significant role in altering the final chemistry of the extract, and thus the reality of the term "equivalency".

      Extending upon your statement re maximising the yield of a specific constituent in making a "standardised" product, sometimes a similar process is used with poor quality raw material to reach the desired "standardisation specification". Which is obviously a shame in the context of holistic phytochemistry.

      I think it is important that practitioner awareness of some of the issues is increased, because at the end of the day, clinical effectiveness is intimately linked with the quality of the medicines we use. And each and every one of our patients deserves the best medicine we can give them.

  2. Reply


    November 2, 2018

    Very helpful information. Thank you.
    I am a little confused..
    I have 1000 kg Nettle (for example) and I want to make liquid extract from it, the ratio will be 1:4
    So,what should be the quantity ot obtained liquid extract? 4000kg or am I wrong?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      November 4, 2018

      Hi Maya!
      Thanks for your comments.
      Yes, essentially your calculations are correct. If you have 1000kg of dry herb material, and desire to make a 1:4, then the quantity of final liquid will be 4000L (because it is a liquid extract, we generally measure the output in volume rather than mass/weight). Obviously though that would be a HUGE batch! ;-)

  3. Reply


    November 5, 2018

    Thank you so much, Mr. Breakspear :-)
    What about dry extracts? There is other calculation or it is the same? (If I have 1000 kg raw material) I will get 4000L liquid extract but if I want dry extract, I should evaporate the solvent and what is the ratio there?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      November 5, 2018

      Hi Maya,

      Pleasure! With dry extracts the principles are the same, however if the extract is a solid or semi-solid, then the final extract mass (instead of volume) is used in the ratio. As an example, say you have 10kg of dry herbal material, and you extract it using whatever choice of solvents, then evaporate the liquid until you have 2kg of dry extract, you would have a 10:2 (i.e. 10kg of dry material, producing 2kg of extract), or as it would usually be written, a 5:1 (i.e. 5kg producing 1 kg).

      Of course the concentration step is a major confounding factor in the actual activity - whilst you might have a 5:1 mathematically, the real question is do you actually have an extract that is 5 times stronger than the original dry material? Whilst obviously the choice of solvent and method of extraction plays a role here, the concentration step adds another factor, and the outcome is largely dependent upon the active chemistry of the plant. For example, if the actives are volatile, then using heat and/or vacuum concentration will result in not just the solvent being removed, but also a large proportion of the actives. Likewise if the actives are unstable at higher temperatures, then you have to be very careful to ensure that those temperatures are not reached otherwise the constituents will degrade.

      It is for these reasons that many of the concentrates sold on the world herbal materials market and incorporated into powders and tablets and capsule, often don't work in clinical practice as well as you'd expect. Many clinicians don't realise this, and companies rarely discuss this issue openly. Of course there are exceptions (often where the company has invested considerable money and time into research and development, including benchtop and clinical research) but overall these are the exceptions, rather than the rule.

  4. Reply


    November 14, 2018

    Hi Mr. Breakspear, please help me with an argument regardind the follwings: I have two extracts, an 10:1 extract and an 5:1 extract from which I obtain the same mass of solid extract, let's say, 5g of solid extract. In terms of comparison, could I say that the 10:1 ratio is more concentrated than the other, just because I use more herb? Taking into account that the final extract quantity is the same, I would actually presume that the 5:1 extract is obtained from a herb of a higher quality, rather than say that the first one is more concentrated.
    Thank you very much and I am looking forward for your opinion!

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      November 16, 2018

      Hi Joanna!
      Yes, the 10:1 is definitely more concentrated than the 5:1 - if you have 5g of a 10:1 extract, then it is equivalent to 50g of dry herb, whereas 5g of a 5:1 would be equivalent to 25g of dry herb.

      However it is important to know this is a simple mathematical relationship - it does not take into account the raw material quality, or the efficiency of the extraction. It is certainly possible to have 5g of a 5:1 made efficiently from good raw material, which is more efficacious than 5g of a 10:1 made with less-than-ideal solvents and methodology and poor quality raw material.

      This is why dry herb equivalency calculations are important, but cannot always be relied upon when comparing products. It is also why many herbalists find better results from 1:1 or 1:2 liquid extracts than some tablets, even when using the same dry herb equivalent amount. It is not because of better absorption, but because in creating the concentrate to go in the tablet, the desired phytochemical profile has been sacrificed in order to get a more impressive looking drug extract ratio.

      • Reply


        May 19, 2020

        So basically is better to have extract hidroalcoolic 10:1 500 mg of plant, neither 5:1 2000 mg per caps.
        I will highly appreciate your answer

  5. Reply


    January 7, 2019

    Dear Mr. Breakspear, could you be so kind and please help me with an calculation regardind the follwings: I have the following composition and I would like to know the final amount of 1 tbl.
    Rhodiola rosea 5% rosavins standard RR05S
    o Part of the plant used: root
    o Active titration: 5% rosavins
    o Plant extract ratio: dry extract 7-10/1 (native extract)
    o Quantity per unit: 144 mg
    o Quantity of equivalent dry plant per unit: 1008 mg
    Which type of calculation I can use for this mathematical case?
    Thank you very much for your help and reply!

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      January 11, 2019


      Interesting question, but one which I cannot answer completely due to the fact that a tablespoon is a measurement of volume not mass, so without some kind of density value for the powdered extract, it is impossible to calculate exactly. But I can help you towards finding the solution yourself.

      Firstly we should consider some background explanation of the specifications you have provided. The drug extract ratio is declared as 7-10:1 which means that there is some variation in dry herb quantity used batch to batch in the extraction process. In this case, the variation means that between 7kg and 10kg of dry herb is used to make 1kg of final extract. This variation is likely necessary in order to ensure that each batch can be standardised for 5% rosavins, as natural raw material will have a natural variation in constituent concentration from harvest to harvest, or depending upon where it is grown.

      The information you provide says that the "quantity per unit" is 144mg, although what "unit" they are referring to is unclear. What is clear is that they say for that "unit" it is equivalent to 1008mg of dry herb material. This means that they are basing their calculation off the bottom end of the drug extract ratio - i.e. 7:1, rather than the upper end of 10:1. In case you need it, the mathematics for this calculation are:

      X (dry herb quantity) = 1008mg
      Y (extract quantity) = 144mg

      DER = X divided by Y = 7 (i.e. the drug extract ratio is 7:1)

      Now to the crux of your question: how much herbal material is in one tablespoon? You can only calculate this by converting the measurement of a tablespoon into a measurement of mass. Therefore what I would suggest is that you obtain a proper tablespoon measurement (you can often purchase these at cooking supply stores - but check whether they are meaning a US or an Imperial tablespoon measure as there is a slight difference in volume), and a set of digital scales. After placing a cup or dish on the scale and zeroing the scale, carefully measure out 5 tablespoons of your Rhodiola powder and put them in the cup/dish, then note the weight reading on the scale. Divide this by 5 and then you have the weight of powder per tablespoon (I'm suggesting doing 5 tablespoons rather than one to improve accuracy, as most digital kitchen scales are slightly less accurate at low weights). If you then divide this by 144mg then multiply by the DER (7) you'll have the dry herb equivalency of Rhodiola in one tablespoon of this extract.

      These calculations should work unless there is some complication in what they refer to as a "unit" in their statement "quantity per unit". It is possible that they define a unit as a tablespoon or a teaspoon or some other measurement, and that in that "unit" there is 144mg of extract and the rest of the volume is made up of an excipient. Hopefully this is declared on the label or the product specifications - if it is not, then there is no way of calculating the dry herb amount in a tablespoon.

      I hope this helps!

  6. Reply

    James Maloney

    January 16, 2019

    Hi Ian, Could you please let me know if I have calculated this correctly please. From dried herbs to a liquid extract. 70mg of powdered herbs = 1.4ml in liquid extract if the liquid is 1:2?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      January 24, 2019

      Hi James.
      Not quite - the only issue you've made is in regards to units of measurement, which is a very common mistake when first working out these calculations. The best bet is to convert the milligram quantity to grams if you are wanting extract equivalency in millilitres. So 70mg = 0.07g

      Then apply the calculation as stated in my blog post above and the equivalent dosage of a 1:2 would thus be 0.14mL (so you got the numbers correct, just out by a factor of 10 as a result of the units issue).

  7. Reply


    January 17, 2019

    I want to know about hedera helix. I want to make syrup of hedera helix (ivy leaf) equivalent to 43.75 mg/ml dry leaf extract.
    My extract ratio is 10:1

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      January 24, 2019

      Hi Manish,

      I'm assuming you're starting with dry powder 10:1 extract, then intend to mix and dilute it with a sugar and water mixture to turn it into a syrup.

      Firstly you need to work out how much 10:1 you need to be equivalent to 43.75mg of dry leaf. So this part of the problem is a dry herb to extract conversion. Therefore you divide the dry herb amount by the extract ratio, which gives you 4.375mg of the 10:1 extract. Thus you will need to ensure that in each millilitre of the final syrup there is 4.375mg of the 10:1 extract.

      The next step is scaling this up to a quantity which would be relevant to prepare yourself. So as an example, let's say you wanted to produce a litre of the syrup. This is 1000mL of syrup. Therefore you will need 1000 x 4.375mg of the 10:1 extract, or 4375mg, which of course is 4.375g. You would add this to your mixing vessel, and then add enough pre-prepared syrup base to bring the final volume up 1000mL. It is important for accuracy that you don't just add 1000mL of syrup - that would mean the total end volume would be 1000mL plus whatever volume the 4.375g of 10:1 consumed, which would mean that there would in fact be slightly less that 43.75mg of dry leaf equivalent per millilitre. Whilst in this case the difference would be minute, it is a good habit to be accurate when possible.

  8. Reply


    February 7, 2019

    Hi Ian! This is a great article! I just finished a course of study as a student of herbal medicine. I generally work with herbs by dry weight in the form of infusions and decoctions. I also generally measure out my amounts in terms of ratio of parts, for example:

    2 parts red clover bud
    1 part nettle leaf
    1 part raspberry leaf
    .5 part peppermint leaf

    That way it is flexible regardless of the size of batch. But I have someone that wants me to break it down into milligrams per dose. I am certain I am over-thinking this entirely, mostly because math has never been my strength.

    Do you have any advice as to how to simply the process? Thanks.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      February 9, 2019


      If you're using a ratio of parts by dry weight (and not volume), then you are part way there in your calculations.

      The key to the next step in the calculations is knowing how your patient measures out their dose, or how you've stipulated for them to measure it out. Are they using volume (i.e. 2 heaped teaspoons, or similar)? If that is the case, you need to take your mixed herbs, and measure out how much a teaspoon (or whatever volume measurement you are stipulating in your dosage for the patient) weighs. I'd suggest using sensitive digital kitchen scales, putting a container on the scales and zeroing them, then adding 10 teaspoons of the mix into the container. Note the weight on the scales, then divide by 10 to get the average weight of a teaspoon.

      Now let's say your teaspoon of mixture ends up weighing 3g (just as an example). You would divide that by 4.5 which is how many "parts" by weight are in that teaspoon, giving you a result of 0.67 (rounded).

      You then apply this to the number of parts of each herbs:

      2 parts red clover x 0.67 = 1.34g
      1 part nettle x 0.67 = 0.67g
      1 part raspberry x 0.67 = 0.67g
      0.5 part peppermint x 0.67 = 0.34g

      Total = 3.02g (just over 3g due to the rounding)

      So if the patient is using 2 teaspoons per cup, or 5 teaspoons to make a day's decoction, or whatever, you can now work out how much herb they are getting in that cup, or in that day's decoction. Obviously to convert to milligrams, multiply all the results - which are in grams - by 1000.

      I hope that helps!

  9. Reply


    February 17, 2019

    Hi Ian,

    Thank you for this very helpful article. I have a complicated question & one that I am unable to figure out. Please could you help me if possible? I am trying to find how much a 300mg Hypericum LI160 tablet (Jarsin brand) would be in 1:2 45% Hypericum perforatum tincture equivalent? The only data I can get on the Jarsin tablet is 300mg dried extract from Hypericum perforatum (3-6:1); Extract Methanol 80% (v/v). Even an approximation would be extremely useful! Many thanks in advance. Marianne

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      March 10, 2019


      Yes this one is a bit complicated. Jarsin 300 (or LI 160) is a standardised extract, and as the specifications indicate, the DER can vary between 3:1 to 6:1 in order to ensure consistency from batch to batch (given that raw Hypericum can vary from harvest to harvest). Therefore direct comparison to a 1:2 of Hypericum is difficult, and some would say questionable as even if the dry herb quantity could be matched, the extraction methods are different, and obviously raw material sources would likely be different.

      But if you are looking for an approximation, the way I would normally look at it is that the DER range and go in the middle - so this would be a 4.5:1 (i.e. 4.5kg of dry Hypericum would make 1kg of final extract).

      If each tablet has 300mg of this extract, that would mean that it would be approximately equivalent to 4.5 x 300mg = 1,350mg of dry Hypericum (or 1.35g).

      To convert this to a 1:2, you would then apply the formulae I have outlined in the blog post - i.e. dry herb quantity divided by DER. So this would be 1.35g divided by 1/2 = 2.7mL of a 1:2 would be roughly equivalent to 1 tablet. If you were converting this to a weekly dosage as most herbalists and naturopaths do, you would need to consider how many tablets of Jarsin 300 is recommended per day. This is usually 3 tablets per day. So you'd be looking at 8.1mL of a 1:2/day or approximately 55mL/week (which is quite high when you consider the manufacturer's recommendations for most 1:2's on the Australian marketplace).

      Remember though that this is very much an approximation.

      Hope that helps!

  10. Reply


    February 22, 2019

    Hi Mr Breakspear, Your post is very clear thank you for sharing. I am wondering about fresh plant extracts though? How can I be sure about how many grams of herb I am taking if I am taking a 1:1 extract of a plant that has a 50% water content. So if I put 100g of chickweed in 100ml of 95% ethanol and took a 5ml dose would i be getting 2.5g of chickweed? or would i have to do some other equation to account for the water content?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      March 10, 2019

      Hi Jill,

      If you are extracting fresh plant (as opposed to just fresh juicing it), then more calculations need to be conducted as the general consensus is to declare DER as dry herb to final extract, not fresh herb to final extract.

      However an argument can be made for declaring it as a fresh plant. So in your example if you took 100g of chickweed, and added 100mL of 95% ethanol (and stuck it in all in a blender for example), you would then measure out the final quantity of liquid after filtering and pressing. Let's say you ended up with 140mL (some water and ethanol is always lost in the process), then you would have the equivalent of 100g of fresh chickweed in 140mL of final extract. This would equate to a 1:1.4 extract of fresh plant. So in a 5mL dose you would have the equivalent of 3.5g of fresh chickweed (i.e. 5mL x 1/1.4).

      If you wanted to look at dry herb equivalence then you need to do more processing and calculations. This involves taking a small sample of fresh chickweed, then you weigh it, and then heat it in a low oven until it is full dry. Then weigh it again and calculate the percentage lost in the drying process. This then enables you to convert fresh to dry herb equivalencies (it also enables you to know exactly how much water is in the fresh plant, and thus when you add the 95% ethanol it and blend the fresh herb, it also enables you to do the full calculation of the percentage ethanol in the final extract). I won't go into all of these calculations here - perhaps that might be the topic of a future blog post if there is the demand! ;-)

      Hope this helps.

      • Reply


        July 14, 2019

        Thank you so much for explaining this. I will have to practice these calculations to get my head around them but you have really helped me understand the process.

  11. Reply


    March 11, 2019

    Hi Ian,
    I found this very informative, thank you.
    My question relates to a plant I am working with in conjunction with an aboriginal elder. She is providing the plant, and I am boiling it up to her specifications to obtain a decoction, and then I am making a skin cream using this as the liquid portion. Now I have your information I am more informed about the concentration of what I am obtaining, but I also need to know how much of this decoction (botanical extract?) is desirable to use in a recipe. With nothing written down it is difficult to transfer her knowledge ("use it all!!") with how much cream I am able to create. Many recipes state not to use more than 3% extract at one time (without noting the extract % concentration). Do you have any thoughts on this?
    I'm not sure if this question is in your area of expertise, but you might be able to send me in the right direction. Thankyou for your time.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Hi Cath. Sounds like some interesting work! There is no simple answer unfortunately, as there are many factors to be considered. For example, is there upper limit (for safety) on the dosage of the plant for topical use (which can be the case particularly with some volatile oil-rich plants, which in some cases can cause local irritation)? When combining it with other ingredients to make a cream, the concentration is often limited by the ability of the other ingredients to hold an emulsion. You also need to consider preservation, especially if using a water-based extract, which depending on other ingredients in the cream may result in it easily growing mould and/or bacteria. Cream making is quite an expertise (especially if you are wanting it to have some shelf life). Sorry I couldn't be more helpful - I'd definitely suggest seeking training in herbal pharmacy (preparation of herbal products).

  12. Reply

    hidayat ullah khan

    March 16, 2019

    hello ian
    I really appreciate your efforts regarding herbal equivalency
    I would like to be in touch as I am working on some herbal medicines

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Thanks for your feedback. I am available for commercial consulting - please contact me via email.

  13. Reply


    March 18, 2019

    Hi Ian,
    Thank you for this very helpful article. This is my question: I use to take 2 mL / day of liquid extract ratio 1:5 of chelidonium majus and now I got dry extract ratio 10:1 of the same plant. What would be the equivalent in this case? Or how much of dry extract I should take?
    Thank you for your help.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Thanks! You can use the calculation examples in my post to work this out. First determine the dry herb equivalent for the 2mL of 1:5 Chelidonium majus, then determine how much by weight of a 10:1 would give you the same dry herb equivalent. Hope that helps!

  14. Reply

    Ola Alhasan

    May 6, 2019

    Hello Ian
    Thanks a lot for this all information

    I am Pharmacist, and I work in trading company for import Herbal extract I have some difficult to convert many things in herbals
    Please learn me when I have certificate of analysis in extract ratio , the customer wanted it in percent, How I can converting?

    the customer asked for 0.175% , and producer provided me COA with extract ratio 10:1, Can I converting this ratio to percent, so I can know if it like customer request or not

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Apologies, but this sounds like a commercial or research question. If you would like to engage my services as a consultant, please contact me via email. Thanks!

  15. Reply

    Lisa Bennett

    May 13, 2019

    My Granny takes 40mg Lasix. She is 94yrs old. But still gets lots of fluid in her lungs because doctors don't want to increase her dosage. When they did it the fluid decreased but caused her kidneys to decrease in function. So she is back on 40mg. I want to find a natural herbal substitute to help remove the fluid but not hurt her kidneys. I am desperate for help. She has CHF/COPD which is causing the extra fluid.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Sorry this is a clinical question, and requires a consultation with a qualified herbal clinician. I'm not sure where you are located, but if you and your grandmother are in Australia I do have a private clinical practice (see the Clinic section of this website). Otherwise I would suggest finding an appropriately qualified herbalist or naturopath near you.

  16. Reply


    May 20, 2019

    Very useful and wonderful information thank you.
    Are there online sites selling herbal extract with high concentration?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Thanks, glad you find it useful. There are some sites selling concentrated herbal extracts, but mostly these are sold commercially (and in larger commercial quantities). Some companies have large product ranges, some specialise in just a few. Examples include Frutarom, Indena, and numerous others.

  17. Reply


    June 25, 2019

    I would like to ask a question about this topic. I am studying on a encapsulated (with maltodextrin and gum arabic) herbal extract from "butcher's broom (ruscus aculeatus)". This herbal extract is standardised according to saponin content called "ruscogenins". and EMEA assessment report points out that dose of ruscogenin in finished product (capsule form) should be 9 (+-2) mg. Our extraction process yields to encapsulated dry extract of butcher's broom in that ruscogenin contains %2-5. I mean, standardised extract potency variable and it impossible to add certain amount of standardised extract during capsule formulation. What should i do for formulation studies?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      July 11, 2019

      Apologies, but this sounds like a commercial or research question. If you would like to engage my services as a consultant, please contact me via email. Thanks!

  18. Reply


    July 14, 2019

    Hello Ian Breakspear,
    I’ve come across your website with very helpful information and explanations. However, I am unable to find the answer to two pieces and I hope you can help me please. I Tried to find answer for this for a very long time.
    1. How to calculate/know the amount of mg of extract in plant powder such as Ashwagandha if taking/placing amount in vegetarian capsule?
    A. How much plant extract in loose powder in 1 tsp,/tbsp., etc.?
    B. I need to take 500mg of Ashwagandha daily, I have lot of it in loose powder, how much powder do I need to take?
    C. Is there a formula/resource to calculate the milligrams a certain plant powder to take needed amount in capsule?

    2. Let’s say I make comfrey or St. John’s wort oil, is there a way to calculate plant extract/potency in mg?
    The same question applies to liquid extract (tincture) how much milligrams is in comfrey from 500grams of dry herb? I apologize if you previously explained this someone, and I thank you in advance for your time, knowledge, and guidance.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      November 17, 2019


      1) This is impossible to answer without further information. If you are using a dry extract (likely a concentrate) you need to know the drug extract ratio, and the amount in the capsule, to calculate the dry herb equivalent. Capsule sizes vary, as to powder densities, so you need to apply some calculations to work out how much powder per capsule. For instance, if you have an encapsulating device/filler that allows you to fill 50 capsules at a time, I'd suggest weighing the device after the empty capsule halves have been added, then add powder as uniformly as possible to all the capsules, then weigh the device with the filled capsules again. Subtract the first weight, then divide by 50 capsules. This will give you the average dry powder weight in each capsule. But you still need to know the DER of the powder to calculate dry herb equivalency.

      2) Again this one is impossible to answer as the density of different plant material varies significantly. If you are using leaf material, then the lower density compared to root material means that there will be less dry herb per spoon.

      3) Again, this depends on the density, how finely powdered it is, etc. And if it is not just dry plant material, but concentrated extract, then you need to know the DER.

      4) See above.

      5) Making an oil of a plant material is still a type of extract, so the basic mathematics still applies. You weigh the amount of plant material you are using, then determine the volume of solvent (in this case, some kind of fixed oil) you are using. Once you have done the infusion, measure the volume of final oil obtained, and then calculate the DER from those figures. You do need to be aware that infused oils can be made from dry plant material, but often made from fresh plant material (e.g. St John's Wort) so your calculations will give you the DER for fresh (rather than dry) herb.

      If you are considering making these products for medicinal use (even if it's for you, or for family or friends), I'd suggest undergoing professional training in this area to ensure accuracy and safety regarding your choice of herbs, extraction methods, and dosage.

      Hope that helps.

  19. Reply


    August 7, 2019

    Hello Ian,

    Thank you for the great article however as a person hopeless at maths I am trying to figure out how to go about my herbal tincture that will contain several herbs in the formula. For example a tincture I am wanting to create will have dried herbs;
    St Johns wort 50gm (grams)
    Lemon Balm 50gm
    Skullcap 50gm
    Motherwort 50gm
    How though do I know after the individual tinctures have been extracted (veg glycerine) how much each to add to my final formula equal parts or certain amounts for each ? If it was as easy as equal amounts id add all the herbs into the solvent rather than do individual extracts then bottle. Also then what ratio would this be? I hope I made sense? Thank you.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      November 17, 2019

      Hi Celine. This is more of a question of the appropriate medicinal dosage of each of the herbs, which of course does vary from herb to herb, and then from person to person as well. For this I'd suggest consulting with a professional herbalist or naturopath, to determine what you need. Whilst for these herbs it may be possible to use equal parts, there may be a need in some cases to emphasise one herb over the other in terms of dosage. Also, you need to determine what your final tincture strength will be, remembering that glycerine alone may not be the most efficient solvent to use in some cases due to its viscosity. That tincture strength (DER) will help you determine final dosage.

  20. Reply


    August 21, 2019

    I am interested in making my own CBD oil for personal use. I purchased 7grams of CBD plant material and am going to use olive oil as my carrier oil. I am trying to figure out how much oil I should use and be able to calculate the mg of the oil once the plant matter is removed. Is that possible?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      November 17, 2019

      Hi. Whilst this is definitely possible, I'd suggest getting professional training in how to make herbal preparations so that you know how to effectively extract the plant material. Also remember to comply with local regulations regarding using this plant material.

  21. Reply


    August 22, 2019

    Can you help me with this:
    1) Non-alcoholic oral drops contain 11.36g of dry extract (Echinacea purpureae herba, D/E is 4:1) per 100ml of preparation. Recommended dosage is 15-20drops/ 1-3x day.
    2) Alcoholic drops contain 94.9g of Echinacea purpureae herba, D/E is 1:2) per 100g of preparation. Recommended dosage is 10-15 drops/ 3x day.

    Is this comparable, how we can come to the recommended dosage?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      April 24, 2020

      Hi. We are fortunate here in Australia with the Therapeutic Goods Administration that strength declarations have be much clearer and consistent. It is very hard to make sense of the specifications you've outlined here. My best assumption is below:
      1) 11.36g of a 4:1 extract in 100mL of final preparation. This would equal 45.44g of dry herb equivalent in 100mL. So the final drug extract ratio would be around 1:2.2
      2) Unfortunately the specifications for this one are contradictory. It is not possible to have 94.9g of herb in 100g and be a 1:2 (it would have to be 50g in 100g to be a 1:2). In addition grams shouldn't normally be used as the measure for the final preparation if it is a liquid.

      So unfortunately there is no way these products can be directly compared, because their specifications are incomplete and contradictory.
      Sorry I couldn't help more!

  22. Reply

    chandradevan machap

    October 21, 2019

    Good day Mr. Ian,

    Thanks for the fruitful information. I have a small favour to ask from you. Currently I am doing my MSc in two herbal extracts formulation for anti-inflammation studies. I have chosen the extracts ratio as 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1. However, my supervisor asked the reason for choosing that ratio. Honestly, I am not sure how to answer it; because there are no definite reason for choosing one ratio. there are no rights and wrongs. we just keep try and error until we get the best results. however, I can't answer my supervisor in that way :-) sure she will pissed off.. lol.. so my question is: how you determine the formulation? do you have any journals to support the reasons? thanks


  23. Reply

    Angelique Vickers

    October 30, 2019

    Daer Mr Breakspear, when comparing results from clinical trials is it best to compare native extract or crude drug (also referred to as herbal drug or dried herb equivalent)? In the examples I am looking at native extract maybe 20mg and crude drug 180mg. What is the most accurate way to reflect clinical trial results for comparison?
    I am a student. Thank you.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      April 24, 2020

      Hi! In actual fact there are weaknesses to both methods. Whilst native extract is important, if a 4:1 is produced by one company using one method, and then another company produces a 4:1 of the same herb using a different method (e.g. different solvent types or ratios, different concentration steps, different extraction process, etc), they may not be fully comparable. Even crude drug may not be fully comparable, as phytochemical variation does occur depending upon the nature of the growing seasons, harvest time, location, soil, etc. So in my opinion it is best to look at both crude drug and native extract specifications as reported in individual clinical trials - at least as a starting point.

      I've been doing a bit of work with a not-for-profit called the Natural Health Science Foundation, helping them in the development of a short online course which looks at a lot of these issues. It should be released in the next few weeks (likely end of April or early May 2020). Maybe check out their website and sign up to the newsletter for more information.

  24. Reply

    Chris Drozier

    November 14, 2019

    Hi Mr Breakspear,
    I noticed you did not cover FRESH plant extracts. Although the math remains the same for the examples you gave, I am wondering what ratio of plant to solvent I should use to make a concentrated tincture. Can I then call my tincture a 1:1 or 1:2 the same way I would for a dry herb extract as long as I specify fresh herb?
    Doing Mullein leaves for the record and was told to use everclear because fresh herbs have too much water to use Vodka/brandy.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      April 24, 2020

      Hi! Fresh extracts add a couple of different complexities to the equation. There are a few ways that strength is declared: (a) dry herb equivalent - which requires you do do a moisture assessment of the fresh plant to determine water content; and (b) just declaring the fresh herb quantity used to produce the final product volume. However you are unlikely to be able to produce more concentrated preparations like a 1:1 or 1:2 - most fresh plant extracts are 1:4 or thereabouts. Whilst a fresh 1:2 (i.e. 1kg of fresh plant producing 2L of final extract) is definitely possible, as you say having a concentrated ethanol is important otherwise when this is combined with the water in the fresh plant, the final volume is too high, and the ethanol level too low.

      I still would recommend doing a moisture assessment of your fresh plant as otherwise you won't know the actual ethanol content of your final product, and whether it is too low for preservative effect, or too high to efficiently extract some of the active components (depending upon the active chemistry of the chosen plant). A moisture assessment requires you to put aside a small amount of the fresh material, weigh it, and then rapidly and thoroughly dry it, and weigh the final dried version. From this you can determine water content, and use the calculation that for every 1g of lost weight that is 1g (and thus 1mL) of water content. Use this plus the actual percentage of ethanol in your Everclear to calculate how much Everclear you'll need to get the ethanol percentage desired in your final extract.

  25. Reply

    Andy White

    January 15, 2020

    Hi Ian,
    Thanks for a very informative article. I landed here just trying to figure out a label on a bottle of Unicaria Tomentosa that I bought a while ago, but I ended up reading the whole article and and the posts, and finding it very informative. I have an allotment and there's quite a lot of stuff that grows there that I discover is either medicinal or beneficial, and your article has stimulated a desire to utilise these resources in an informed way, rather than just bunging a load of herb into a jar and submerging it in vodka!
    Anyway, the label tells me the concentration is: 1:5@50% dry.
    Perhaps you could cast some light on this.

    Regards, Andy White.

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      March 14, 2020

      Hi Andy. That likely means that the drug extract ratio is 1:5 (i.e. 1kg dry herbal material producing 5L of extract), and the 50% commonly refers to the percentage of the ethanol (alcohol) in the tincture.

  26. Reply


    February 18, 2020

    Valerian ratio 3-6:1 in 70% ethanol , pls tell what is the dosage in 441.35 mg ? Can it is possible to make

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      March 14, 2020

      Sorry, I'm not clear about your question. Additionally it is important to remember that ratios expressed as a range (i.e. 3-6:1) are averages and therefore a clear dry herb equivalency is difficult to calculate exactly.

  27. Reply

    Lukasz Kubasik

    March 21, 2020

    Hi Ian
    I just bought some dried herbs with intent of making my first extracts but ill rather drink it as a tea instead.
    Have no clue how to make 1:1 liguid extract. I understand i have to mix lets say 50gr of herbs with 50ml of ethanol but then herbs are getting drunk and its difficult to squeeze out some liquid.
    What method and proportion should i use to make 1:1 extract?
    I have also 2nd question. If i use next time dried powder extract 5:1 and make tincture 1:5 with this, will I recieve 1:1 liquid extract?
    Thank you in advance for ur reply, and for the article as well:)


    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      April 24, 2020

      Hi Luke.

      Yes you're correct, just macerating (soaking) the dried herb in the menstruum (solvent - in your case ethanol) will rarely be able to produce a 1:1 liquid extract as the dry material soaks up so much fluid, and there is a limit to how much you can press out. Most 1:1's are made using a concentration step of some form - traditionally something like the reserve percolation method, but today often vacuum concentration or simple heat concentration.

      And yes you can start with a 5:1 concentrated powdered extract and dilute it to a 1:1 if you want (but just mixing it with 5 parts of solvent as you indicate). However depending upon the quality of the 5:1 extract, it may or may not be a good final result - there are many herbs that don't respond well to concentration processes unless very carefully done.

      Hope that helps!

  28. Reply


    March 25, 2020

    Dear Mr. Breakspear,
    I found your website searching the net for recipe how to make at home standardised extract. I would like to make at home elderberry syrup having 38% (w/w) extract per 10 ml dose. On the label of a popular brand is written that it has 3,8 g of elderberry per 10 ml. On some web sites they write that the extract for that same brand is 2:1. Can you help me with instructions how many grams of dried elderberry, water and white sugar I have to use so that after boiling and passing through the sieve to have such syrup with 38% concentration?

    • Reply

      Ian Breakspear

      April 24, 2020

      Unfortunately I really can't provide this kind of advice here on this website. Herbal manufacturing (even at home) requires some training in herbal chemistry, solvent characteristics and extraction methods, not to mention the mathematics. So I would recommend you seek out some professional training if you'd like to learn this. If you are just dabbling, particularly with relatively innocuous medicines such as Sambucus nigra fructus, then just experiment in the kitchen and don't worry too much about the exact concentration. But obviously don't do this for herbal medicines which are stronger or have safety issues associated with them.

  29. Reply


    May 11, 2020
    is this like to say a 30.1 extract ?

  30. Reply


    May 12, 2020

    Really interesting arrticle!
    I would like to ask this, if you have the kindness to answer me. So, the procedure of creating a 1:1 extract is by maceration (with the help of blender), percolation or with the help o f a laboratory equipment? I have a very interesting herbal book which suggest the following: St. John's wort 1:1 fresh strength liquid extract 70% alcohol.
    What method must I follow so I can achieve a fluid extract of 1:1?
    I would be grateful for any answer!

  31. Reply


    May 19, 2020

    Is it possible to create an extract of 1:1 by double or triple maceration?
    I believe that this method is more potent than percolation.
    Any ideas?

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